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Cardio Vascular Disease is now the most common cause of death worldwide. However, there are many ways to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. Cardio Vascular Disease comprises of many different types of conditions. Some of these might develop at the same time or lead to other conditions or diseases within the group.

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​The most common Cardio Vascular Diseases are as follows:

Hypertension
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Hypertension

Blood pressure is the force that moves blood through our circulatory system to carry oxygen and nutrients to all organ and tissues.

How blood pressure is checked ?

  • The device used to measure blood pressure is a sphygmomanometer, it consists of a rubber armband – the cuff that is inflated by hand or machine pump.

  • Once the cuff is inflated enough to stop the pulse, a reading is taken, either electronically or on an analogue dial.

  • The reading is expressed in terms of the pressure it takes to move mercury round a tube against gravity. This is the reason for pressure being measured using the unit millimeters of mercury, abbreviated to mm Hg.

What are the different types of high blood pressure?

  • Primary, or essential, high blood pressure : is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older.

  • Secondary high blood pressure :is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat that condition or stop taking the medicines that are causing it.

Why do I need to worry about high blood pressure?

When your blood pressure stays high over time, it causes the heart to pump harder and work overtime, possibly leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure.

Heart Failure

  • The body relies on the pumping action of the heart to deliver nutrient- and oxygen-rich blood to each of its cells. When the cells do not receive adequate nourishment, the body cannot function properly.

  • If the heart becomes weakened and cannot supply the cells with sufficient blood, the person will be tired and breathless. Everyday activities that used to be easy can become challenging.

  • Heart failure can be systolic or diastolic, depending on whether it affects the heart’s ability to contract or relax, respectively or right side failure or left failure or biventricular failure.

  • Heart failure is a serious condition, and there is usually no cure. However, with the right treatment, people can still lead an enjoyable and productive life.

  • In today’s era treatment options are from medicine to mechanical circulatory support system to last option of heart transplant in selective cases.

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Heart Failre
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Coronary Artery Disease

  • Coronary artery disease develops when the major blood vessels that supply your heart become damaged or diseased with Cholesterol-containing deposits (plaques) with inflammation.

  • The coronary arteries supply blood, oxygen and nutrients to your heart. A buildup of plaque can narrow these arteries, decreasing blood flow to your heart. Eventually, the reduced blood flow may cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or signs and symptoms such as neck or jaw pain, excessive perspiration, and complete blockage can cause a Heart Attack.

  • Because coronary artery disease often develops over decades, you might not notice a problem until you have a significant blockage or a heart attack. But you can take steps to prevent and treat coronary artery disease. A healthy lifestyle can make a big impact

  • Sometimes a heart attack occurs without any apparent signs or symptoms.

Coronary artery disease

Arrthymias

  • An arrhythmia describes an irregular heartbeat. With this condition, a person’s heart may beat too quickly, too slowly, too early, or with an irregular rhythm.

  • Arrhythmias occur when the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats are not working correctly. An irregular heartbeat may feel like a racing heart or fluttering.

  •  Most arrhythmias are not severe and do not cause complications. Some, however, can increase the risk of stroke or cardiac arrest.

  • Various treatment available from medication to correcting electrolyte imbalance to various surgical intervention to putting (ICD ) defibrillator inside body.

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Arrthymias
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